Date: 11 months ago   Category: Studies

Scientists have opened two new species of animals which have grandmothers - RIA Novosti, 8/27/2018


MOSCOW, 27 Aug — RIA Novosti. Whales white whales and narvala have got to elite club of mammals whose females refuse reproduction and become "grandmothers" for the sake of education of posterity of the daughters. About it scientists write in article published in the Scientific Reports.© magazine RIA Novosti / Evgeny Biyatov to Pass into an image bank Scientists: "lazy" sons and grandsons were the reason of appearance of grandmothers "to Us extremely heavy to understand how there were modern behavioural instincts of people as we live in isolation by nature already very long time. Observations of other animal species, such as these whales, will help us to understand how unusual reproductive strategy — "institute" of grandmothers has appeared" — Darren Croft from the University of Exeter (Great Britain) has said. It is considered that the majority of animals keeps ability to reproduction throughout all the adulthood. Fruitless elderly individuals don't bear advantage for population owing to what life expectancy of the majority of mammals is limited to terms of their fertility. There are also exceptions of this rule — people, killer whales and dolphins-grindy. Currently anthropologists explain existence of elderly people with a so-called hypothesis of the grandmother. According to this theory elderly women stop breeding for the evolutionary reasons — helping the daughters to grow up and raise children, the grandmother thereby increases chances of further transfer of the genes. Anthropologists have found confirmation of this theory in populations of the Africans who have got stuck in a primitive-communal system. A year ago Croft and his colleagues have opened the reasons of why killer whales become grandmothers: they protect the adult daughters from the excessive competition in their own "family", without disturbing, and helping them to bring up grandsons and great-grandsons.© RIA Novosti / Anton Denisov to Pass into an image bank Biologists recognized laziness as "the main engine" of evolution" in process of aging of a female in her group more and more relatives — her children, grandsons and great-grandsons appear. It means that if she continues to bring forth offspring then they will compete with her grandsons and great-grandsons for food, reducing collective chances that all group will survive. Therefore from the evolutionary point of view it is more favorable to elderly females to refuse reproduction and to learn young growth to look for food" — Sam Ellis, Croft colleague explains. Being guided by this idea, oceanologists have analysed how families are arranged and as ovaries of other zubaty whales behave. It has turned out that at once three species of these mammals — already known for the scientist of a grinda and also white whales and narvala — too have developed "institute of grandmothers". It is spoken well that by 35-40th year of life the number of full "preparations" of ova in ovaries of these two species of whales reduces to almost full zero, much quicker, than at the closest relatives. In addition both white whales, and narvala live in big families with prevalence of females and young growth that pulls together them with people and killer whales and distinguishes from many other whales. © RIA Novosti / Vladimir Expert

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