Date: 2 weeks ago   Category: Studies

Geneticists have opened secrets of survival of Yakuts and Nganasans - RIA Novosti, 9/13/2017


Geneticists have opened secrets of survival of Yakuts and Nganasans - RIA Novosti, 9/13/2017
MOSCOW, 13 Sep – RIA Novosti. Geneticists from Russia and the USA have deciphered DNA of Yakuts and Nganasans and have opened unusual versions of the genes allowing these peoples of the North to survive in constant cold, the polar night and a diet consisting almost completely of fats it is told in article published in the Molecular Biology and Evolution magazine. "The analysis of our data has helped us to allocate seven genes connected with life in the north of Siberia. Three of them are connected with a diet, in particular with metabolism of fats that says that Yakuts, Nganasans and other peoples of the North adapted to the diet rich with animal fats. In addition, all of them play an important role in energy production, in metabolism of proteins and in work of cellular membranes" — Ryan Gutenkunst from the university of Arizona (USA) tells. © RIA Novosti / Alexander Lyskinpereyti in fotobankmikroba of Eskimos haven't given to scientists a secret of a supermeat diet of the of a nositeleyeskimosa, the Chukchi and many other northern nationalities and also residents of Tibet are of huge interest to geneticists as they have adapted to life in extreme conditions where people usually don't drive out of more southern countries. For example, genetic researches of Tibetans have helped scientists to allocate genes which inhabitants of these uplands have inherited from ancient people - "denisovets" and which have helped them to adapt to a lack of oxygen of mountains. The problem as Gutenkunst tells, is that "clean" populations of representatives of these northern and mountain people have almost completely disappeared today that prevents search of similar sites of DNA and studying of how they could help their ancestors to survive in severe conditions of mountains and the North. For example, at the moment less than one thousand the Nganasan and about 480 thousand Yakuts live in Russia. For the solution of this problem of Gutenkunst and his colleague have combined the efforts with the Russian Institute of cytology and genetics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science in Novosibirsk whose experts have helped the American geneticists to receive tests of DNA of Yakuts and нгасан, to decipher and analyse them. In total scientists have analysed over 500 thousand "dot" mutations in their DNA in attempt to find the "Siberian" genes. © AP Photo/Brennan Linsleyuchenye: Eskimos were the most degenerate people of Zemlietot the analysis, according to scientists, has pointed that Yakuts and Nganasans, despite cardinal differences in a way of life – the first are nomads cattle-farmers, the second – hunters collectors – are close relatives. Their ancestors were divided about 13 thousand years ago, and subsequently they almost didn't keep in touch with each other. This date as scientists consider, wasn't casual – at this time glaciers have begun to recede last time that has allowed the people of Far North to expand areas of dwelling and to begin to live in the territories freed from ice. Both Yakuts, and Nganasans have endured sharp reductions in number subsequently that indicates extremely severe conditions in Siberia of that time and difficult history of adaptation to them. © Photo: Fotolia/photocrewuchen

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